What Conditions apply to the Carriage of Goods by Sea?

The three major international conventions concerning the International Carriage of Goods by sea are:

Many leading trading nations have introduced their own Carriage of Goods by Sea Acts based on the above rules but with their own interpretations.

It is therefore particularly important that a freight forwarder issuing Bills of Lading, (the contract of affreightment between the ship carrier and the goods owner) as a principal carrier should ensure the terms and conditions of the Bill of Lading are compatible with the local laws of the country of origin or destination.